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留学参考:Ranking Business Schools By Specialization (1/2)  

2017-06-27 01:17:02|  分类: 学校与选校 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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留学参考:Ranking Business Schools By Specialization (1/2)
 

BY: JEFF SCHMITT ON JUNE 26, 2017

 

 

Close your eyes. Ask yourself this question: What words come to mind when you hear Wharton?

Chances are, CFO or banker flashed across your mind. No surprise: Wharton has been a synonym for finance for generations. How about Ivy League? That’s a fact, even if it can be a dog whistle for privilege. Of course, there is always runner up, as in Wharton plays the Quaker Coyote to Harvard’s Road Runner.

Sound about right? Maybe if you chummed around with John Sculley or Robert Crandall! These days, Wharton has emerged as a leader in high tech and entrepreneurship, as connected to Sand Hill Road as Wall Street. You’ll find as many hip hop lyricists as blue blood elites in Huntsman Hall, where liberal arts majors outnumber quant jocks by a near two-to-one margin and women nearly equal the men. Wharton student arrive in Philly with higher GMATs than their Charles River rivals — and leave with higher starting paychecks too. If the original Generation Y — Yuppies — wanted to earn their first million by 30, Wharton Millennials are hell bent on making a social impact by the same age.

Reputation matters in business schools. It is a measure of how well schools can push their message to those who matter. It can also inflate a school’s strengths, reinforcing long-held beliefs that can open doors for those with the right stamp of approval. When it comes to reputation, few MBA programs can match Wharton.

STANFORD MAKES THE TOP 10 IN EVERY SPECIALIZATION

Look no further than U.S. News & World Report’s annual ranking of school specializations. Here, Wharton shined across the 10 concentrations evaluated by U.S. News: accounting, entrepreneurship, finance, information systems, international, management, marketing, nonprofit, production, and logistics. Overall, Wharton ranked as a top ten program in eight categories, continuing its reign as the top finance school while finishing as the runner up in both marketing and accounting.

As impressive as this feat is, it only ties Wharton for the silver. For the second consecutive year, the Stanford Graduate School of Business finished in the Top 10 in every specialization, a tribute to its across-the-board excellence. While Stanford didn’t rank as the top program in any category, it placed 2nd in entrepreneurship, management, and nonprofits, with its lowest finish being 7th in both information systems and logistics. Although Stanford dropped to 4th in U.S. News’ overall ranking — tying it with MIT Sloan and Northwestern Kellogg —the specialization ranking shows that Stanford’s academic reputation hasn’t slipped…at least among the business school deans and directors who voted.

Not surprisingly, Harvard Business School also fared well in a ranking where name recognition has its advantages. Placing among the Top 10 in seven specializations, Harvard upheld its “West Point of Capitalism” moniker by ranking 1st in management. U.C.-Berkeley’s Haas School of Business nearly matched Harvard with six Top 10 finishes, crowned by a 2nd place ranking in nonprofits. At the same time, New York University’s Stern School of Business and Columbia Business School each notched five specializations in the top ten, capped off by 3rd and 4th place finishes respectively in finance. MIT’s Sloan School of Management also appears in the top 10 five times, including top billings in operations and information systems.

GENERALIST APPROACH FITS MODERN BUSINESS ETHOS

Every ranking tends to have its outlier, that unexpected gem that turns convention on its head. Among MBA programs, the University of Michigan’s Ross School of Business stands out when top-to-bottom excellence is measured. Ranked 11th overall by U.S. News, Ross is viewed as being among the very elite by MBA royalty. It ties Wharton with eight of its concentrations ranked among the top ten, led by operations (3rd) and logistics (4th). The program also ranked a respectable 15th in information systems and went unranked in the more niche fundraising category.

Tucked in Ann Arbor, Ross is part of one of America’s largest research universities. Flush with resources and driven by an interdisciplinary, experiential learning model, Ross is a template for how MBA programs can achieve consistent and widespread superiority across its various specializations.

This performance is an extension of a vision chartered by the school over 40 years ago. Like Harvard, Ross bears the reputation of being a “general management” school. However, that has worked to the school’s advantage as business has evolved towards a generalist approach, says Dean Scott DeRue in an interview with Poets&Quants. This ability to understand the ground level while operating from the big picture has given Ross graduates an advantage, DeRue adds, particularly when leading people in functional areas where they are not necessarily the expert.

“We’ve been able to develop a reputation for not only developing functional specialists, but a reputation for developing business leaders who can integrate across functions to make effective business decisions and mobilize people and resources to achieve results.”

A STRUCTURE AND CULTURE DEVOTED TO INTERDISCIPLINARY PROBLEM-SOLVING

Such outcomes are also the result of Ross’ focus on culture and structure. In recruiting and rewarding faculty, DeRue looks for candidates who bring a “passion and curiosity” beyond their own functional areas. Call them renaissance scholars who are seeking to diagnose and solve highly ambiguous and intricate business problems from a wide range of vantage points. For example, DeRue cites Eric Schwartz, an assistant professor of marketing, who has been partnering with Facebook and Amazon to identify ways to reduce the cost and risk inherent to fixing Flint, Michigan’s tainted water supply. At the same time, Jun Li, an assistant professor of technology and operations, has been conducting research to help Airbnb reduce owner bias when it comes to choosing clients for their properties.

“Culturally, we’re looking for people who have a shared commitment to excellence across these different specialties along with an appreciation for the different approaches that those functions or specializations bring to solving problems,” he adds.

Ross’ structure also reinforces such principles. Along with the usual organization by academic area, Ross has also created what DeRue calls “cross-cutting structures” that level the traditional silos and foster interaction among various functional experts through research, teaching, and intellectual property. One example is a weekly meeting of an interdisciplinary committee focused on organizations, which boasts representatives from across the school, including psychology, sociology, and economics. DeRue even views the school’s signature MAP (Multidisciplinary Action Projects) program, where student teams partner with leading firms on hands-on projects, as another built-in structure that supports this teamwork-driven, interdisciplinary mission. “Companies are looking for people who are not only functional experts, but can work across those functions to create business value,” he notes. “Across our undergraduate and graduate programs, that’s not only our aspiration, but it’s also our commitment.”

 

REINVENTING THE MBA MODEL THROUGH “LIVING BUSINESSES”

This commitment is taking shape in Ross’ mission to “reinvent” the business school experience through its newly-minted “Living Businesses” program. Think of it as an ongoing internship or consulting project that doesn’t end at the semester or summer. Drawing off of Ross’ experiential bent, the program enables students to apply their core expertise while experiencing cross-functional dynamics by operating a real business. The first of these stretch assignments is Shinola, a rapidly-growing luxury retail brand from Detroit. In March, a team of undergraduates and MBAs began reporting directly to Shinola’s CEO — and were given the responsibility of designing, launching and operating Shinola’s next business unit.

“This is ongoing,” DeRue explains. “This is not a short-term consulting project where they tell Shinola what the business should be and what the business case is. Students have to do that, but then they have to actually build it. There will be multiple functions in play, from marketing and branding to supply chain and operations to the finance and administrative functions of the business. Our students are going to have to do all aspects of that business. And the stakes are real. We fundamentally believe the best way to learn business is to actually do business. And we wrap all this with the coaching, mentorship and the faculty, who can help reinforce the core fundamentals and expertise of the various functions when needed.”

Ross may be the prototype for the total package business school, but there are several MBA programs that are glaring omissions in U.S. News’ specialization ranking. Take Booth, which only ranks top ten in three specializations (accounting, finance and marketing). Across town, Kellogg finds its way into just four categories (though it remained tops in marketing). What about Dartmouth’s Tuck School, which makes just one top ten appearance (#6 in management)?

DISSENTING OPINION: QUALITY IS STRONG ACROSS THE TOP 20

Does this mean that students won’t get as well-rounded of an education as their peers at Stanford, Ross, Wharton, and Harvard? Hardly, says Jeremy Shinewald, President and Founder of mbaMission, an elite MBA consulting firm. A Darden alum, Shinewald’s alma mater made U.S. News’ top ten in just two concentrations (entrepreneurship and management). That shouldn’t be a red flag that the program is weak in certain areas in his experience. And Shinewald takes umbrage at the notion that some top MBA programs may not be strong across the board.

“The quality of education across Top 20 is excellent,” he tells P&Q in an interview. “Among the Top 20 schools universally, they have their bases covered. I’ve visited a lot of business schools and I think that I am always impressed.”

For Shinewald, MBAs can get a good job in consulting, for example, whether they attend Harvard, Wharton, Duke, or NYU. The same is true with financial services, marketing, and general management, he adds. The differences, he believes, involve niche strengths. That may include healthcare, where Shinewald lauds Duke, Kellogg or Wharton, or asset management, where McCombs students can manage an $18 million dollar fund. “It’s when you get real deep, then you have some niches that might sparkle a little more than others,” he notes.

Depth isn’t one of the U.S. News specialization ranking’s strengths. Make no mistake: it is riddled with flaws. Unlike U.S. News’ overall MBA ranking — which has been roundly criticized for giving a 40% weight to peer and recruiter assessment scores — the specialization ranking is 100% subjective. There is not one quantitative measure baked into in the evaluation. Instead, U.S. News reduces it to a popularity contest among the b-school elite. Here, each respondent can choose up to 10 programs per specialty to be included in the ranking. While some respondents may have previously worked at different institutions or maintain relationships with colleagues outside their school, Shinewald questions whether they have the day-to-day experience to truly measure the quality of their peer schools.

“STEREOTYPES BEGET STEREOTYPES”

“What ends up happening is stereotypes beget stereotypes,” he says. “Some of the deans, in my opinion, don’t take a lot of time to do their homework or really dig into what these schools are about. They’re running big institutions. They don’t have time to go out there and research 25 different programs definitively that this is best in a certain area for XYZ reason. They go with what they know and what they know is what we all know and that is what generally forms stereotypes.”

This lack of awareness — coupled with the potential for bias — is only part of the problem. The methodology doesn’t specify exactly what the respondents are evaluating, whether that would be faculty or curriculum quality (among many other options). The responses are also given the same weight, meaning a vote for Harvard is equal to a vote for the St. Louis University in any given specialization. In other words, U.S. News doesn’t take the extra step of measuring the academic community’s passion for particular programs. The only bedrock is that schools must earn seven or more votes to be ranked. On top of that, U.S. News doesn’t reveal the number of respondents, let alone the participants involved, adding further skepticism about the distance between voter and school.

Despite the dubious methodology, the U.S. News specialization ranking still possesses value. Fair or not, it is a window into how programs are perceived in certain areas. More than that, they can tip applicants off to potential changes in how programs are viewed. Due to the self-reinforcing nature of the ranking — along with the small pool of respondents to draw from — the specialization rankings tend to see little movement year-to-year. As a result, splashy debuts or large movements are potential indicators that a shift in the market’s thinking may be in the works.

TOP SCHOOLS FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP NOT AMONG THE TOP 50

The logistics ranking illustrates such a point. Typically, business schools will gain or lose one or two spots in the specialization ranking. Here, Wharton and Columbia went from ranking 10th and 17th respectively in 2016 to going unranked in 2017. Arizona State tumbled from 4th to 21st. Not to mention, Michigan State upended MIT as the top school in the field.

That said, several programs moved the needle in a positive direction (i.e. four spots or more) in 2017, perhaps a harbinger that school efforts were finally recognized by their peers.  These upswings included Northwestern and California-Berkeley (accounting); Ohio State (finance); Georgia (information systems), Duke and Minnesota (operations); Virginia (entrepreneurship); Northwestern, Yale, and Georgetown (international business); Yale and Duke (management); and Indiana and Florida (marketing).

By the same token, the ranking allows often-overlooked programs to step out of their overall ranking. Exhibit A is Babson College, which placed #1 in entrepreneurship despite ranking outside the top 50 overall. The University of South Carolina can boast the same, finishing first in the international business voting. In accounting, the University of Illinois and Brigham Young University rank 3rd and 7th. Much the same, #49 Arizona settled in at 4th in information systems, while #50 Purdue claimed the 6th spot in operations.

 

Overall Rank School 2017 Accounting 2016 Accounting 2017 Finance 2016 Finance
1 Harvard 24 NR 8 8
1 Wharton 2 2 1 1
3 University of Chicago (Booth) 4 2 2 2
4 Stanford 6 6 5 4
4 MIT (Sloan) 18 23 6 6
4 Northwestern (Kellogg) 18 NR 11 10
7 California-Berkeley (Haas) 12 20 7 7
8 Dartmouth (Tuck) NR NR NR 25
9 Yale SOM NR NR 25 21
9 Columbia 17 12 4 5
11 Michigan (Ross) 5 5 9 9
12 Duke (Fuqua) 24 NR 12 15
12 New York University (Stern) 9 8 3 3
14 Virginia (Darden) NR NR NR NR
15 UCLA (Anderson) NR NR 10 11
16 Cornell (Johnson) NR NR 18 NR
17 Texas (McCombs) 1 1 14 15
18 North Carolina (Kenan- Flagler) 9 10 NR NR
19 Carnegie Mellon (Tepper) NR NR 16 18
20 Emory (Goizueta) NR NR NR NR
21 Washington U. (Olin) NR NR 24 NR
21 Georgetown (McDonough) NR NR NR NR
21 Indiana (Kelley) 11 11 25 NR
24 USC (Marshall) 8 9 NR NR
25 Vanderbilt (Owen) NR NR NR NR
25 Arizona State (Carey) 28 NR NR NR
27 Ohio State (Fisher) 14 13 18 NR
27 U. of Washington (Foster) 21 NR NR NR
29 Rice (Jones) NR NR NR NR
29 Notre Dame (Mendoza) 12 13 NR NR
29 Georgia Tech (Scheller) NR NR NR NR
32 Minnesota (Carlson) NR NR NR NR
32 Temple (Fox) NR NR NR NR
34 Wisconsin 21 NR NR NR
34 BYU (Marriott) 7 7 NR NR
36 Penn State (Smeal) NR NR NR NR
37 Michigan State (Broad) 24 22 NR NR
38 Texas A&M (Mays) 28 NR NR NR
38 Texas-Dallas (Jindal) NR NR NR NR
40 Florida (Hough) 18 20 NR NR
40 Illinois 3 4 NR NR
42 California-Davis NR NR NR NR
43 Rochester (Simon) NR NR 13 18
44 Boston U. (Questrom) NR NR NR NR
44 California-Irvine (Merage) NR NR NR NR
44 Boston College (Carroll) NR 16 18 12
47 Maryland (Smith) NR NR NR NR
48 Georgia (Terry) NR NA NR NA
49 Arizona (Eller) NR NR NR NR
50 Purdue (Krannert) NR NR NR NR
50 Rutgers NR NR NR NR

 

 

以上内容摘自:

http://poetsandquants.com/2017/06/26/ranking-business-schools-by-specialization/ 

 

 

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