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留学参考:The MBA Gender Pay Gap? $14K In Year One  

2017-04-24 03:01:20|  分类: DIY留学综合信息 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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留学参考:The MBA Gender Pay Gap? $14K In Year One
 
BY: NATHAN ALLEN ON APRIL 13, 2017

 

 

Women MBAs are at a salary disadvantage from the onset of their post-business school careers, new data shows. According to self-reported data from MBAs graduating from top U.S. business schools, women earn an average total compensation package of $14,000 less than men in their first year of work. The data has been compiled by Transparent Career, an online MBA job reporting platform founded by an MBA team from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.

On average, men make $180,000 in total compensation in their first jobs after graduating with an MBA. Women, on average, make $166,000. More than 2,300 recently graduated MBAs were included in the dataset. The data backs up what many previous reports have already found: employers pay men more than they pay women. But perhaps most disturbing about this new dataset is the timing. It’s not happening five or 10 years into a career, but right after graduation.

“For this analysis, we looked specifically at the full-time jobs MBAs got right out of school,” Transparent Career CEO and co-founder Mitch Kirby wrote in a blog post that analyzed the data. “This helps to eliminate a lot of the issues normally found in studies like this, because the individuals in our dataset have essentially identical credentials and have access to the exact same set of jobs.”

The disparities manifest in both average salaries and various bonuses, with the majority stemming from the average annual salary and average bonus. For example, male MBAs report average salaries of $121,500 right out of business school, while women report an average of $117,400. The gap grows even more in annual bonuses where men report earning an average of $24,900 and women report $16,900. “That’s pretty huge coming right out of graduate school,” Kirby wrote of the overall total compensation gap.

The MBA Gender Pay Gap

According to self-reported data to Transparent Career, women make an average of $14K less than men in their first jobs after graduating with their MBAs. Use the dropdown box to look at average salaries and bonuses.

Total CompensationSalaryBonusSigning BonusRelocation BonusStock CompensationMiscellaneous Compensation
Women
$180,000
Men
$166,000
Women
Source: Transparent Career Get the data

 

In an attempt to get to the bottom of the gap, Kirby broke the data down into job functions. The data reveals some intriguing trends. At one end, women actually made $44,335 more than men on average in sales job functions. On the other end, men going into investment management functions made an incredible $96,964 more than women. Those were the extreme outliers, however, and most job functions saw total compensation differences closer to the overall $14,000 gap.

 

MBA Gender Pay Gap By Job Function

Investment management functions have the largest wage gap with men making almost $97K more than women in their first jobs after business school. Meanwhile, women going into sales make, on average, more than $44K more than men.

Job Function Wage Gap Average Female Total Compensation Average Male Total Compensation Average Total Compensation % of Females Reporting % of Males Reporting
Investment Management $96,964 $150,250 $247,214 $233,932 13.70% 86.30%
Human Resources $22,829 $120,983 $143,813 $130,115 60.00% 40.00%
Other $18,751 $125,053 $143,804 $137,553 33.30% 66.70%
Information Technology $17,843 $125,929 $143,772 $139,608 23.30% 76.70%
Business Development $14,344 $138,076 $152,420 $149,519 20.20% 79.80%
Analytics & Data Science $14,272 $110,815 $125,088 $123,006 14.60% 85.40%
Consulting $12,620 $178,352 $190,971 $188,060 23.10% 76.90%
Corporate Strategy & Strategic Planning $10,005 $157,156 $167,161 $164,543 26.20% 73.80%
General Management $9,641 $157,035 $166,676 $164,266 25.00% 75.00%
Product Management $6,369 $188,511 $194,880 $193,421 22.90% 77.10%
Marketing $5,416 $148,492 $153,907 $151,452 45.30% 54.70%
Operations $5,024 $163,064 $168,087 $167,041 20.80% 79.20%
Investment Banking $3,649 $229,869 $233,518 $232,946 15.70% 84.30%
Corporate Finance $2,725 $154,893 $157,617 $157,148 17.20% 82.80%
Project Management $(12,546) $160,233 $147,687 $152,597 39.10% 60.90%
Sales $(44,335) $217,727 $173,392 $182,259 20.00% 80.00%
Private Equity Not enough data $375,500 $218,510 $223,416 3.10% 96.90%
Venture Capital Not enough data $250,000 $147,862 $155,158 7.10% 92.90%

Source: Transparent Career Get the data

 

Kirby then calculated the wage gap, a compensation index, and a female representation index by analyzing the “relative proportion of men and women, their average compensation, and the average compensation for that function as a whole” for each job function. “For the female representation index,” Kirby wrote, “a score of 100 would mean that women are equally represented relative to their overall prevalence in our data set.” A score of 150, for example, would mean women are represented at 50% more than men. The inverse would be a score of 50.

 

Female MBA Representation In Job Functions

Transparent Career crunched their data to examine where women are over- and under-represented in popular MBA job functions. Women are represented most in Human Resources functions and represented least in Private Equity functions. Out of the 18 functions, women are under-represented in 12.

Function Female Representation Index
Human Resources 250.71
Marketing 189.42
Project Management 163.51
Other 139.28
Corporate Strategy & Strategic Planning 109.37
General Management 104.46
Information Technology 97.50
Consulting 96.38
Product Management 95.71
Operations 87.05
Business Development 84.51
Sales 83.57
Corporate Finance 71.96
Investment Banking 65.48
Analytics and Data Science 60.94
Investment Management 57.24
Venture Capital 29.85
Private Equity 13.06

Source: Transparent Career Get the data

 

 

JOBS WHERE WOMEN UNDER-REPRESENTED PAY MORE

Private equity and venture capital stand out as functions where women are very under-represented. Meanwhile, human resources, marketing, and project management roles all have higher representation of women. Still, according to Kirby’s analysis, in order for role choice to play a large role in the wage gap, there must also be a specific pay difference in roles.

“Now, for this difference in role choice to drive the wage gap, the jobs in which women are under-represented must pay more on average, and vice-versa,” Kirby wrote.

And that’s exactly what they found. But, Kirby continued, after running multiple regressions, “roughly $4.5K of the gap was driven by this difference in job function choice, or about 33% of the total.”

‘SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE’ IN PAY

To go even further still, Kirby honed in on consulting, because of its “notoriously standardized compensation packages.” Yet, in the data, there was still a wage gap of more than $12,000. How could this be? First, Kirby posited, there could be a difference in positions and titles of roles men and women go into. So he decided to compare titles in consulting and investment management. In investment management, female associated reported making $144,000 in total compensation, while men made $158,813.

No women reported being an analyst in investment management, but the men that did reported a whopping average total compensation package of $334,598.

“For the exact same job title in the exact same job function, there was still a significant difference in total compensation,” Kirby concluded of investment management.

LARGER GAPS THAN EXPECTED IN CONSULTING

And for consulting?

“Within consulting, both genders were hired into the same exact roles, but again there were striking differences in compensation, with men making more,” Kirby wrote.

Indeed, women taking consultant titles earned on average, $184,962 in total compensation and men earned $198,932. For associates in consulting, the gap widened. Women reported a lower amount of $173,188 while men increased their total compensation to $199,390.

“After further analysis, it appears that hiring MBA students into different roles was fairly localized to Investment Management, both because of the scale at which it occurred and because of the absolute dollar difference in pay between these roles.” Kirby wrote.

Overall, Kirby concluded $1,300, or 9% of the total $14,000 gap could be a result of “specific positions” MBAs were hired into.

REPORTING BIAS ACCOUNTS FOR NEARLY HALF OF THE TOTAL WAGE GAP

With about 42% of the reported wage gap in their data somewhat explained, Kirby set his sights on reporting bias.

“We used data from a set of top consulting firms, which we know to offer completely standardized compensation to MBAs regardless of gender,” Kirby wrote of their methodology to examine the hypothesis. “We looked to see if there was a difference in how women and men reported these offers.”

While men and women both reported salaries around $144,400, men reported earning $8,000 more in “bonus” and “other compensation.” Of the $12,000 gap in consulting, Kirby reasoned at least two-thirds of it was due to men inflating their projected bonuses and overall compensation. According to the report, an additional 43% of the overall wage gap was a result of this phenomenon.

“What’s noteworthy here is that offered salary is an objective, immutable number,” Kirby wrote. “Performance bonuses and other compensation, however, can be interpreted more subjectively?—?based on a range candidates are given in an offer letter. Its likely that men are estimating they will achieve higher performance bonuses than women, which leads to a larger reported wage gap.”

Kirby also examined if women went to companies that paid less on average than other companies for the same function and concluded there was nothing in the data pointing to that playing a factor in the overall wage gap.

 

So, Kirby was able to pinpoint three indicators of the gender pay gap that leads to an estimated 85% of the $14,000. The relatively homogenous dataset points to the complexities surrounding the gender wage gap within the United States.

“It’s clear that women should not be paid less than men for the same work,”was  Kriby wrote. “However, the complexity of this issue makes it difficult to separate when this is actually occurring, due to more nuanced variables that may be driving a gap. Nevertheless, each of these types of issues is a problem?—?from legal, ethical, and social perspectives?—?but each deserves understanding and better identification of when problems exist.”

 

 

 

以上内容摘自:

http://www.usnews.com/education/best-graduate-schools/paying/articles/2016-03-31/determine-the-risks-rewards-of-a-masters-in-fine-arts 

 

 

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