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2009年7月份,我给一个老朋友(Simon FT-MBA,2010春季班)为申请MBA而写的Essay提了几点比较关键的修改建议。后来,她成功拿到Simon的Offer。再后来,她建议我做留学DIY咨询方面的工作,并向我介绍了我的第一个客户。最终,我的第一个客户也成功拿到几个TOP16商学院的面试并顺利拿到Duke Fuqua商学院MBA的录取。 本人毕业于上海复旦大学管理学院国际企业管理系,属于商科科班出身并且做过管理工作、有领导经验的人士。


留学参考:What Women Want? Maybe Not MBAs  

2017-03-11 03:55:09|  分类: DIY留学综合信息 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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留学参考:What Women Want? Maybe Not MBAs



In higher education, women outnumber men on most fronts. In 2015, women earned 57% of bachelor’s degrees and 60% of graduate degrees in the United States. In specialized business master’s programs — degrees like the Master of Marketing, Master of Accounting, and Master in Management that have exploded in recent years — women globally represent 52% of all degree seekers.

But even as they have achieved parity or better in these areas, women have been stuck at around 40% enrollment in full-time MBA programs, in the U.S. and globally, for the last several years. Indeed, even as MBA parity seemed finally within reach, it has eluded women’s grasp. In 2016, 27 of the Financial Times’ top 100 global schools boasted female enrollment of more than 40% (including nine schools with more than 45%) — double the number from the year before. Yet in a report released today (March 8), the Graduate Management Admission Council finds that only 37% of MBA students globally are women.

“Everyone knows there’s a gap there, but what’s interesting is, when it comes to other business master’s programs, we don’t see that gap,” says Betty Su, GMAC chief marketing officer, noting that online and part-time MBA programs also are often more appealing to women candidates, in part because of their flexibility. “So you really need to go in deeper and understand those underlying motivations in terms of what is actually differentiating women from men in their decision-making process, and why the MBA gap persists.

“Our key finding, in a nutshell, comes down to the fact that women are a lot more pragmatic when it comes to looking at how they want to advance their careers and how they look at business education.”


The GMAC report, What Women Want: A Blueprint for Change in Business Educationis based on insights from GMAC’s Global Graduate Management Education Candidate Segmentation Studyconducted in 2016, which surveyed 5,900 female and male B-school applicants representing 15 countries worldwide. The new report shows that despite gains in other areas, parity in full-time MBA programs remains an unattained goal.

“Women have made phenomenal progress in attaining business master’s degrees, yet they have not caught up with men in the share of MBAs earned,” Sangeet Chowfla, president and CEO of GMAC, said in a news release accompanying the new report. “Our extensive global segmentation research and market intelligence looked at several important underlying factors that contribute to this growing participation of women in business master’s and lack of parity in MBAs, with financial concerns being the number one issue cited by female applicants.”

Financial concern is a significant barrier for women, the top reason globally (29%) that female applicants have not yet accepted their admissions offer to graduate business school. The greatest gender difference on this question was seen in the U.S., where more than a third (38%) of female respondents cited money concerns in delaying acceptance of their admissions offer, compared with 20% of male respondents.

Overall, in the U.S. 30% of female applicants cite obtaining funds as their biggest challenge, versus only 9% of male applicants. That’s a huge gap, Su acknowledges to Poets&Quants. “As women are looking at investments like this, they are looking for reassurance in terms of the return on investment,” she says.


GMAC’s new report seems to indicate certain advantages for women when it comes to the application journey. They are less intimidated by standardized testing than their male peers, and globally, they are much more likely to say they like to continuously discover new things. In the U.S., women are less likely than men to say that the GMAT is too difficult, while in India and China, women are more likely than men to think that submitting exam scores strengthens their applications. Even on the financial side, obtaining funds to pay for school is a bigger challenge for men than for women in both India (8% Indian women versus 14% Indian men) and China (9% Chinese women versus 11% Chinese men).

Moreover, as Su says, women are more pragmatic and outcomes-focused overall in their approach to pursuing a business degree, which at least partly accounts for a preference for other master’s degree options: They are more likely than men, GMAC found, to apply to a specific school because it offers flexible program formats and its graduates get better job opportunities. Especially in Western countries, where the greatest share of women who fall into the Balanced Careerist and Socioeconomic Climber segments are found, women are more likely than men to be motivated by a desire to advance more quickly and earn more money. In that case, an MBA might not be their first choice.

Yet the MBA is still viewed as relevant and valued by women, GMAC found — in fact, women are more likely than men to hold the MBA degree in high regard. So why the disconnect?

“Some of the structures the traditional two-year MBA program aren’t as conducive to some of the things that they are looking for,” Su says. “To me, one of the more surprising factors is that they still see the MBA as the more valuable degree, because while they view MBAs as valuable, the reality is, when it comes to fitting it into their lives and how they want to achieve their goals, they’re looking for a couple of other factors: convenience, and financing.

“What we basically found is that women, not only are they planners who plan the next step in their careers earlier than males, but they’re really looking for what is the most convenient time for them,” Su says. “They’re also looking for more flexible program options that can fit into their lives. As a result of that, a lot of the data that we saw was that they were more likely to consider — even on the MBA format — more part-time, flexible, online, blended programs. And that takes on the second point, which is that obtaining funds and financing is the number-one challenge for women.”



Women are more likely than men to begin considering graduate management education as undergraduates — in the U.S., by a 27%-to-17% margin — and are more likely to be prompted to apply because the timing was convenient. But this is largely only the case in Western countries, where the profile of the female graduate business degree candidate differs widely from the male; in India and China, where female Global Strivers are more likely to be found, women’s motivations and application behaviors more closely resemble those of male applicants from these countries, GMAC found.

Segments of women with funding challenges are less likely to pursue MBA degrees. Balanced Careerists and Socioeconomic Climbers, who report having the greatest funding challenges, are the least likely to pursue an MBA degree and most likely to seek a non-MBA degree instead — and they also are less likely to say they are willing to pay “whatever it takes” to attend a top-ranked business school.

“When we look at the segmentation, one of the interesting things that we see out of the seven global segments — in particular in the U.S. and Europe — is that there are two segments that are over-indexed for women: the Balanced Careerist and the Socioeconomic Climber. Both of those, not surprisingly, are motivated by more practical concerns in terms of return on investment. The Balanced Careerist in particular is more likely to identify with a statement like, ‘Work-life balance is important.’ Balanced Careerists are really looking to advance their careers but it can’t be at the expense of everything else in their lives that they are juggling.

“What we saw was that when we asked men, ‘Would you be willing to pay whatever it takes to go to one of the top-ranked graduate schools?’ they said yes at rates significantly higher than women.”

留学参考:What Women Want? Maybe Not MBAs - 宁春龙 - 宁老师留学DIY咨询


The new report was issued to coincide with International Women’s Day globally and National Women’s History month in the U.S. But it was not the only report released to coincide with these events. The Global Network for Advanced Management, a consortium of 29 leading B-schools, released a study the same week chronicling the challenges faced by women in global business. The study included input from more than 5,000 students at 28 schools and pinpointed four main trends for inequality in the workplace:

  • Job productivity is seen as more important than availability at the office
  • Workplaces favor assertive women (and men), with slight variation across countries
  • Respondents expect that women take on more childcare responsibilities.
  • Working remotely during regular business hours is viewed negatively, while working remotely outside them is a plus. Rather than create more flexibility, technology may be extending the hours people are expected to work

The results show that largely because these specific factors, women are still underrepresented in business leadership roles worldwide. It amounts to a question of the reconciliation of work and family life — work-life balance, and women’s stronger stated desire than men to achieve it.

This is in keeping with GMAC’s findings for why women prefer other business master’s programs than the MBA, Su says. “A two-year MBA program is a longer commitment,” she says. “It tends to be a little more later in their career path because most MBA programs require three to five years of experience, and so it takes them out of their job market for a longer period of time.”


The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business also released a batch of statistics to mark International Women’s Day, and in one respect, they largely fall in line with the conclusions of GMAC and GNAM: Women comprise 36% of all those enrolled in MBA programs in AACSB-accredited schools, a steady rate even as overall enrollment has dropped by 4% since 2013-2014.

However, in that three-year span, total online MBA enrollment has increased by almost 24%, and while female representation has increased only slightly as a percentage of that total online enrollment, nearly 34% more females had enrolled in an online MBA program in 2015-16 than in 2013-14. Contrast that growth with only 20% growth among male enrollees, and a major trend seems to emerge.

“Women value the MBA degree, but it’s outweighed by their more pragmatic approaches in terms of what they believe they need be able to continue to advance in their career,” Su says.

Adds AACSB’s Hannah McLeod: “These findings suggest that although female representation continues to be rather stagnant within the MBA population, which as a whole seems to be shrinking, there is significant interest within the online MBA space, at a higher rate than their male counterparts. One can speculate on the various reasons driving this trend, but the online space appears to be an increasingly attractive option for MBA students, particularly females.”


GMAC’s report concludes that to change the apparent trajectory of female MBA enrollment, business schools should consider new marketing and program management efforts, including addressing in some way women’s propensity for early planning and need for greater convenience. This can be accomplished chiefly in the admissions process, GMAC’s report says, noting that 27% of full-time MBA programs reported an increase in the number of deferrals from 2015-2016 to 2016-2017. “In the short term, we’re hoping that MBA programs that want to attract more women do that by connecting with them more,” Su says, “making sure that they’re talking about the flexible options that are out there. There’s just less awareness, in all honesty, about the offerings in the traditional two-year MBA that will allow women to achieve the work-life balance they seek.”

Communication is key, GMAC contends: For women in Western countries, schools should emphasize that earning an MBA is a way to advance more quickly in their careers and earn more; for women in India, schools should stress their academic reputation as well as job opportunities and global recognition that will come from a degree.

Perhaps most importantly, Su says, schools can evaluate and implement strategies for better allocating financial aid to women.

“What we need to look for is, how do schools look for opportunities to talk about what kind of tuition assistance they have?” she says. “How do we look at potentially more need-based scholarships? How do we help them get financial aid information, make it more readily available? And on top of that, we just need as an industry to continue to talk about the strong return on investment for two-year MBA programs.”

Adds Sangeet Chowfla: “It’s easy to make the mistake of thinking of women as a monolithic block and to view their lack of parity in MBA classrooms as a failure on the part of business schools. The insights in this white paper clearly reveal that women are distinct from men in what they are seeking from their business education experience, and their behaviors differ between countries and behavior types. In our opinion, business schools have made great strides in inclusivity and shaping their recruiting and admissions processes to ensure a diverse classroom. We hope that equipped with this paper’s data and insights, business schools can develop even bolder strategies for increasing the number of women in their classrooms and achieve the gender parity seen in other sectors of graduate education.”







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