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留学参考:Be An International Student In the U.S. In The Age Of Trump  

2017-02-09 03:25:34|  分类: DIY留学综合信息 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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留学参考:Be An International Student In the U.S. In The Age Of Trump

 

 

What It’s Like To Be An International Student In the U.S. In The Age Of Trump
 
BY: MARC ETHIER ON FEBRUARY 07, 2017

 

 

When Ash Malleck was 17 years old, in the midst of deciding whether to seek his undergraduate degree at the University of Toronto or Columbia University in New York, something cataclysmic happened that all but made up his mind for him: 9/11.

Malleck, a South African of Indian descent and a Muslim, had family in both cities, but the atmosphere in the wake of the terror attacks on the World Trade Center was rife with Islamophobia. He chose Toronto.

“Toronto seemed like a more welcoming environment than New York at the time,” Malleck, now studying for his MBA at Wharton, tells Poets&Quants. “Even though I had more family in New York and closer family at that, it was after 9/11, and the tone of the environment there kind of shifted.”

Now Malleck sees the tone shifting again, though this time it seems to be happening nationwide.

MOUNTING, AND FAMILIAR, CONCERNS

The uncertainty and chaos that followed President Donald Trump’s executive order to stop settlement of all refugees within the U.S. and block admission to the country of citizens from seven predominantly Muslim countries has abated somewhat, in the wake of a federal judge’s February 3 ruling that the ban be temporarily halted. But for international students studying for their MBAs at U.S. business schools, the specter of revoked visas and blocked entry to the U.S. still looms large.

Ash Malleck does not hail from one of the banned countries. But as a Muslim with family in India, he has seen this movie before.

“I had visited New York a couple times before for family holidays, and I had really enjoyed it,” he says. “But I did sense a kind of lack of belonging in New York (after 9/11), just because you’re a different color, a different background, a different faith. And I had also heard stories from my family and friends who kind of wore their religion on their sleeves, being affected, and that kind of put me off, so that’s why I went to Toronto. …

“I was in Toronto when Obama was elected, and I felt the elation at the time. For somebody who never really had any strong affinity to U.S. leadership or U.S. policy in general, it felt encouraging that this was a unifying leader at the helm of the superpower of the world. … But over the years since, on the ground, concern has been building up. There was a lot of vitriol during the shift in power from Bush to Obama, including some of the movements coming out of that like the tea party movement, and even the re-election was an issue.”

‘THE GENERAL REACTION AT HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL IS SHOCK AND CONFUSION’

“The signs were there and they were concerning. It’s easy to say in hindsight, but I’ve always felt the concern about the direction of the country. Even though America is a friendly nation and Americans are a welcoming people, but when it comes to internalization and underlying beliefs and ideologies, sometimes it is concerning for somebody who doesn’t quite fit in.”

Alula Eshete couldn’t agree more. The Harvard MBA candidate (Class of 2017), a first-generation American born to Ethiopian immigrants, is CEO of The Harbus, the weekly student publication of HBS. After Trump’s executive order, Eshete echoed his school’s administrators and most of the student body in lambasting the move, calling it “dangerous” and joining the thousands who protested in Boston’s Copley Square in the immediate aftermath.

“The general reaction among HBS students, like many Americans following the executive order announcement, has been that of both shock and confusion,” Eshete tells Poets&Quants. “Muslim students as well as those on visas are obviously concerned about the implications and what further directives might lie ahead, but even students who are not personally affected have expressed outrage. At the same time, for many U.S. citizens, this has been a bit of an embarrassment given the values the U.S. claims to uphold and the fact that 35% of the HBS student body is international.”

97 COMPANIES WEIGH IN AGAINST TRAVEL BAN

Trump’s order, titled “Protecting the Nation From Foreign Terrorist Entry Into the United States” and signed January 27, affects refugees from all countries for 120 days and all travelers from Iran, Iraq, Libya, Syria, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen for 90 days. In the days after Trump signed the order, more than 100,000 visa were revoked, government lawyers said Feb. 3 in a Virginia court; however, that same day, a federal judge on the other side of the country, in Seattle, granted a request for a temporary restraining order against the ban. Denying an emergency request by the White House, James Robart’s ruling was later upheld by the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals. More arguments are set to be heard by three separate federal judges on Feb. 7.

Even as Trump and his administration vowed to have Robart’s ruling overturned, on Sunday, February 5, more than 100 major companies — including such top Silicon Valley-based employers of MBAs as Facebook, Apple, Google, Uber, and Netflix, but also other major companies like Levi’s, Warby Parker, and Chobani — weighed in, filing a legal brief in the 9th Circuit condemning Trump’s executive order. “Immigrants,” the brief states, “make many of the nation’s greatest discoveries, and create some of the country’s most innovative and iconic companies. America has long recognized the importance of protecting ourselves against those who would do us harm. But it has done so while maintaining our fundamental commitment to welcoming immigrants — through increased background checks and other controls on people seeking to enter our country.”

Meanwhile, the impact of the order continues to be felt. Though there are few students and faculty from the seven affected countries in the top U.S. B-schools — the Financial Times found just 18 students, or 0.4%, and 50 faculty in the 80 schools covered by its annual ranking — tales abound of international students from other countries stranded abroad and unable to get back to school, and of faculty members hesitant to travel for research or other academic purposes for fear of being unable to get back into the country. International students overall make up just more than half of the applicant pool to U.S. business schools, and typically about a third of the actual class at top MBA programs, and strong solidarity trends can be seen in surveys of this group: Last October, just before the U.S. presidential election, a National Public Radio poll found that 60% of prospective international students planning to study abroad said they would be less likely to consider the U.S. if Trump were elected.

A SHIFT IN STUDENT MOBILITY MAY BE UNDERWAY

A vacuum seems to be forming, and some are eager to step into it. Echoing HEC Paris Dean Andrea Masini, who in December toldPoets&Quants that he saw Trump as a potential boost to business schools in continental Europe, French presidential candidate Emmanuel Macron recently called on U.S. scientists, academics, and entrepreneurs to move to France, where they would presumably have greater freedom of expression and movement. GMAC data on MBA applicant trends has detected that one-year programs at INSEAD, HEC Paris, IE, Oxford, and Cambridge have growing appeal — the latter two despite Brexit, the UK vote to leave the European Union.

Canada, being closest in proximity, may be poised to gain the most from a shift in international students’ focus away from the U.S. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, in what has widely been seen as an express rebuke to Trump, has opened the door to refugees from all nations, a goodwill gesture certain to have resonance; while Canadian B-schools are vowing support for business and management students — among them the Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto, which is reaching out to affected students and faculty and “exploring how it may be able to assist the broader academic community of scholars and students of business and management.” MBA applications to Rotman are up 22% at this point in the admissions cycle.

“We are very proud of our diverse and inclusive academic community of students, staff, and faculty here at the Rotman School, and we will certainly support our international students and faculty who may be impacted,” Dean Tiff Macklem says. “One of our core values is that we are committed to welcoming people from around the world based on their talent and skills regardless of their place of birth, religion, gender, and sexual orientation.”

INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS: A HUGE BOOST TO U.S. ECONOMY

Domestically, U.S. interest in the MBA degree has been on the wane since 2010, with the number of U.S. citizens taking the Graduate Management Admission Test dropping by a third between 2010 and 2015. This has led many of the more than 700 B-schools in the U.S. to lean heavily on international recruitment, with the number of foreign students taking the GMAT in the same time frame rising 19%, according to the Graduate Management Admission Council. Bloomberg Businessweek reports that international candidates accounted for 58 percent of the applicant pool at full-time MBA programs in the U.S. in 2015; in some cases top MBA programs can be comprised of as many as 35% international students.

International students overall contributed $35.8 billion to the U.S. economy in 2015, according to the U.S. Department of Commerce. Obviously, anything that slows the flow of talent to U.S. schools, including U.S. B-schools, will have severe negative ramifications, not just for the schools themselves but for the economy only as a whole.

Students from the seven countries directly affected by Trump’s ban who are studying all subjects at U.S. colleges and universities number in the thousands, says Rahul Choudaha, who co-founded the higher-education analytics website DrEducation. Most — around three-quarters, or 12,000 — are concentrated in graduate programs, he says.

Clearly, enrollment at U.S. schools will fall among students from the seven banned countries. But schools should also expect to see a drop in enrollment of students from other majority-Muslim countries, Choudaha says, such as Saudi Arabia and Turkey; those two, along with Iran, were among the top 15 places of origin sending international students in 2015-2016, according to the U.S.-based Institute of International Education (IIE).

The IIE studied growth among all international students in particular fields of study between 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 and found that business/management grew a meager 2% — a small increase compared to math/computer science (+25%), education (+10%), and engineering (+10%). Nevertheless, according to the IIE’s Open Doors study, business still represents the second overall field of study for international students (after engineering), with about 200,000 non-U.S. students enrolled at U.S. B-schools.

 


ANSWERING, CLARIFYING, EDUCATING

Ash Malleck is one of those non-U.S. students. The former McKinsey management consultant will get his MBA from Wharton this spring, and he has decided to pursue a career in the U.S., where many companies may want his skills but where millions of voters elected a man he sees as unfriendly to people of his faith and background.

With a long-term goal to transition into the tech industry, Malleck currently has two career paths planned: a smart furniture business, and a nonprofit effort, meetamuslim.co, launching soon, that will be a sort of cyberspace coffee shop where those with questions about Islam or Muslims can meet those with answers. It’s a familiar role for Malleck, who serves as co-president of the Wharton Muslim Students Network, which does outreach and informational events such as luncheons, “Ask Me Anything” forums, and Diversity Week discussions (the latter slated for mid-February).

It’s not hard to imagine that the club has a great deal to discuss these days. Recently it hosted a forum designed to clarify Islam for non-Muslims that was moved forward three weeks to take advantage of heightened interest after Trump’s executive order. The panel discussion covered “how the order is being portrayed in the media and how it affects people on a personal level,” Malleck says. The three panelists were a woman whose parents fled Pakistan, the son of Syrian immigrants, and a man of Egyptian descent. They themselves were from Ohio, Illinois, and Pennsylvania, respectively.

“They got to share with an audience who was interested in finding out more from any kind of angle about Muslims, about Muslims in America, about how American policies affect their lives, and how they’ve experienced the rhetoric against Islam,” Malleck says.

‘EVERY SINGLE DAY IT SEEMS TO GET WORSE’

More discussions are planned, including another AMA session on the immigration ban and life as a Muslim in the U.S. and elsewhere. Such events have been heavily attended of late. Topics, and concerns, are many.

Trump’s executive order is the hottest topic, to say the least, even for those without direct connections to countries on the banned list.

“It’s really concerning for not just Muslims but pretty much any kind of international student right now, because the countries that were indicated in this order were somewhat arbitrary and it happened really quickly,” Malleck says. “The order was executed overnight, and it affected people — four of my classmates have been fairly vocal about how it’s affected their friends and family. Two of them are Canadian, so you would think it wouldn’t affect them, but because one of their parents are from one of the countries on the list, it has affected them — and then the other two are from countries that are not on the list but even then their employers have started reaching out to them and kind of advised them to stay put or return to the U.S. before it affects them even more.”

Malleck himself has plans to visit Europe in a couple months, but he’s been told to stay put until things quiet down. “I’m just not sure it’s actually going to die down,” Malleck says. “Every single day it seems to get worse.” He says his wife has openly wondered “why we’re moving to a country that so clearly wants us to be demonized and kicked out — and not just leadership, but by the majority. The ban is approved by 52% or 53%, according to polls.”

URGING FRIENDS WITH A VOTE NOT TO BE COMPLACENT

Malleck describes a feeling of helplessness in not being able to vote and struggling to “start a movement for encouraging people to actually get involved.” He has been active at Wharton, especially through clubs and educational endeavors, but he wishes he could do more.

“I’m not somebody who is an American citizen and can vote and actually has the power to change the policy of their local legislators all the way through to the top, and that feels like helplessness to me,” Malleck says.

“I mentioned before how my concerns grew with the rise of the tea party movement and the Democrats’ loss in the 2010 midterm elections. I was surprised Trump won, but living in Philadelphia and having connections with New York and Chicago and California, you get exposed to a certain tone and a certain group of people who have specific opinions which kind of lean one way. And that echo chamber gets reinforced.

“I tried to share awareness with my friends who can vote and who can make a difference, and I was sharing the seriousness of the situation with them through articles that indicated, ‘You know what? You live in an echo chamber, you don’t have access to the representative average American in middle America, and as a result you are getting a bit complacent.’ But at the end of the day I was surprised, especially at the significant margin of the win.”

AT HARVARD, YALE, WIDESPREAD REJECTION OF TRUMP’S EXECUTIVE ORDER

At Yale on February 8, student organizers from the School of Management presented Dean Edward Snyder with a petition signed by 224 classmates urging him to publicly condemn Trump’s immigration ban. Meanwhile, about 15,000 professors at U.S. colleges and universities have signed another petition opposing Trump’s executive order on immigration, including some 50 Nobel laureates. Among the signatories are several Harvard Business School professors: David B. Yoffie (“It is a lazy person’s policy answer to a complex problem that was poorly conceived, inadequately reviewed, discriminatory, counterproductive, and fundamentally anti-American”), Christine Exley, Boris Vallée, Katy DeCelles, and William Kerr. Harvard President Drew Faust made headlines when she said “the knowledge and ideas of people from nations around the globe is not just a vital interest of the university — it long has been, and it fully remains, a vital interest of our nation”; while HBS Dean Nitin Nohria, a first-generation immigrant to the U.S. from India, joined the chorus of condemnation: “Whatever the intention of the order,” Nohria said, “its implementation has led to disruption and fear, and it undercuts the very foundation of academic institutions like HBS.”

If there has been a silver lining, believes Harvard MBA Eshete, it’s that many of those not impacted have shown themselves to be allies in an act of solidarity with Muslim and immigrant classmates, says Eshete, who himself is not Muslim but who counts himself among those allies. Administrative and student leadership, he adds, have reached out to the greater student body and offered support and resources, including information sessions with the Harvard International Office, Harvard Global Support Serves, and Career Development Services.

One of Eshete’s biggest concerns is how abruptly Trump’s executive order was issued, and how little transparency there seems to be in the process — all of which makes it hard to grasp the full impact on students at HBS and other business schools.

“In the short term, at-risk students are being told to refrain from international travel, which can have an impact on the job recruitment process,” Eshete says. “With graduation around the corner, there are concerns that family members of some graduates will not be able to attend. And for applicants who are still considering pursuing their MBA in the U.S., getting a student visa to attend or even approval to enter for interviews could be more challenging than ever before. Again, I’m just another concerned spectator, so I can only speculate.”

 

THE ILLUSION OF SAFETY

Trump’s immigration ban doesn’t affect Eshete directly. But that itself highlights a problem for many in B-school. Though they themselves are unaffected, “the topic does hit close to me. As a child of immigrants and having grown up with many close Muslim friends who also migrated here, it’s hard to imagine where we would be or what life would be like had the U.S. always upheld such discriminatory and repressive immigration policies,” Eshete says.

“Frankly, I think the directives are wrong and dangerous. An executive order of this nature only further promotes discriminatory and xenophobic behaviors and sentiments. The fact that the travel ban list does not include certain countries that are home to many terrorists who have actually attacked the U.S. causes me to believe that this is Trump using defenseless, powerless Muslim countries to appease his voter base and create the mere illusion of keeping America safe.

“What I find dangerous is that these directives could create greater animosity both domestically and internationally — perhaps even where none previously existed — only to further exacerbate the very problem they claim to be solving. That said, I’m very proud of the mobilization and compassion of Americans across the country in opposition to the directives. That’s the silver lining amidst this otherwise gloomy period in American history.”

‘THE THOUGHT OF LEAVING SCHOOL TO ONLY STRUGGLE FOR A GREEN CARD IS DEPRESSING’

Concern over Trump’s immigration ban extends beyond those currently in U.S. business schools to those considering attending one. Among them, one woman, an African who has lived in the U.S. on various work visas for about a decade, communicated to P&Q about her deliberations over seeking an MBA in the U.S. or Canada — “and then,” she says, “Trump was elected.”

“As someone who experienced both Bush years and Obama years, I’m still shocked,” says Ramla (not her real name), speaking to Poets&Quants by email and requesting anonymity because she does not want to limit her school or career options by being a known critic of the president. “As someone who was never able to attain that golden green card, I decided to apply to business school to change careers and to update my skill set so it can match the lofty dreams I have of bettering conditions in my home country. U.S. MBA programs are hands-down the best in the world, and more prestigious. The schools I visited were impressive and got me very excited about the journey I’m about to embark on. But the thought of leaving school to again struggle for a green card and possibly not succeed is depressing to me. So I was already debating whether to look at Canada. Then Trump was elected.  And his behavior ever since makes me wonder if I can live through years of gaslighting and moral bankruptcy from the White House.”

So Canadian schools were looking to be Ramla’s best option, especially as Canada could afford her quick permanent residency, political stability, and, as she puts it, “liberal values.” There’s just one problem: “The schools are just not as impressive if I prioritize brand and quality of education. The University of Toronto is highly ranked, but then a Rotman admissions officer admitted on P&Q some years ago to discriminating against candidates over 30.

“I can think of 10 American schools with brands recognized abroad that I could get into and would really enjoy the experience — and I’m not even considering Stanford, Harvard, and Wharton,” says Ramla, who plans to take the GMAT in April and apply to a two-year MBA program by the end of 2017, focusing on product management or operations management. “The Canadian schools” — she mentions both Rotman and Schulich School of Business at York University, also in Toronto — “are just not as exciting, and to my knowledge don’t even have good ties to African markets.”

INTERNSHIPS AND POST-MBA VISA RULES

Then there’s Europe. Ramla has researched London Business School, Oxford Said, INSEAD, HEC Paris, and Mannheim, among others, and likes that some are more affordable than the U.S. — and that they “offer the chance to live in Europe.” However, many lack a summer internship requirement, she says, and for career changers like herself an internship is important.

“Also, I keep coming back to post-MBA visa rules,” Ramla says. “When you need company sponsorship in order to work, the reality is that your options shrink and you end up taking jobs that may not be exactly what you want, not because your dream jobs aren’t available but because those companies won’t sponsor H1-Bs or green cards.”

Lately, she says, her sights have been set on MIT Sloan and Berkeley Haas, both of which she has visited.

WHAT WILL HAPPEN NEXT? ‘WHO KNOWS’ 

But hanging over everything is Donald Trump and his controversial immigration ban. Trump’s election “feels very much like an endorsement by many Americans of bigotry and amorality in public leadership,” Ramla says. “While he lost the popular vote — and for that we can be grateful — we cannot ignore that the votes were closer than initially expected. I question whether the U.S. is the country I thought it was. I’m also concerned about the psychological effects on the citizenry and non-citizens like myself of living under his kind of presidency. You cannot open a newspaper or log on to the NY Times or Wall Street Journal without reading about another outrageous thing the president has said or done, or some other boundary he has crossed.

“Living in the U.S. already, I am sensitive to the resentment, anger, and despair of people around me who are alarmed at what is going on, and I have no idea whether to continue a decade-long habit of reading the news and engaging on current events or change my personal ethic because I may be plugging into something toxic.”

When it comes to legal immigration and the admission of skilled professionals and students like herself, Ramla says, it is not clear whether Trump will improve pathways or find ways to disrupt pathways to discourage others from coming to America — much as the UK has done. “The worst Clinton might have done is leave the H1B and green card systems alone,” Ramla says. “I personally don’t think Trump cares about legal immigration, but the complaints by some of his supporters about H1Bs taking American jobs could maybe motivate him to ‘do something about it’ in order to demonstrate a quick win. Who knows?”

 

 

以上内容摘自:

http://www.usnews.com/education/best-graduate-schools/paying/articles/2016-03-31/determine-the-risks-rewards-of-a-masters-in-fine-arts 

 

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