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2009年7月份,我给一个老朋友(Simon FT-MBA,2010春季班)为申请MBA而写的Essay提了几点比较关键的修改建议。后来,她成功拿到Simon的Offer。再后来,她建议我做留学DIY咨询方面的工作,并向我介绍了我的第一个客户。最终,我的第一个客户也成功拿到几个TOP16商学院的面试并顺利拿到Duke Fuqua商学院MBA的录取。 本人毕业于上海复旦大学管理学院国际企业管理系,属于商科科班出身并且做过管理工作、有领导经验的人士。

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留学参考:The $400K Gender Pay Gap For Biz Masters  

2016-12-06 02:08:35|  分类: DIY留学综合信息 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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留学参考:The $400K Gender Pay Gap For Biz Masters

 


BY: JOHN A. BYRNE ON MARCH 31, 2016

 

 

Getting an MBA may help women advance faster in Corporate America, but it had little impact on the persistent gap in women’s earnings and their lack of participation in top leadership roles.

In fact, a new study out today (March 31) found that women earn $400,000 less than men with graduate management degrees in the 20-year period after getting a business school diploma. And male alums with graduate business degrees currently outnumber women alumni in the C-suite by a ratio of four to one. Only 20 of the 500 CEOs of S&P companies are women.

In a newly published white paper by the Graduate Management Admission Council, two researchers conclude that the gender earnings gap and paucity of women in leadership positions in businesses indicates that further progress is needed to address the barriers and obstacles that make it harder for women to advance in business careers and accrue the same financial rewards as men.

WOMEN EARNING MBAS: FAR FROM PARITY

Though women earn 57% of all undergraduate degrees and 60% of all master’s degrees in the U.S., the percentage of women earning an MBA in 2012-2013 total about 36%. In contrast, women have reached near parity with men in law and medical programs, earning 47% of JD degrees and 48% of MD degrees in 2010-2011.

The $400K earnings gap and the lack of women in leadership obviously reflects this pipeline. But there is reason for greater optimism moving forward. For one thing, the numbers are much better for all graduate degrees in business because more women are earning specialized master’s in such fields as accounting, management and marketing.  Since 1971, the report found, the number of women earning a master’s degree in business rose from only 1,000 to 88,000 in 2014, comprising 47% of the U.S. total.

“Many of the current female leaders in business went to school in the late 1970s and early 1980s,” says Alex Chisholm, senior director of research services at GMAC. “Back then only 4% of grad management degrees were granted to women. It was almost nothing. It’s closer to 50% today. Our hope is that as these recent grads with business training work through their careers, they will chip away at the glass ceiling.”

HIGHEST FEMALE-TO-MALE RATIO FOR GMAT TEST TAKING LAST YEAR

Another sign of a turn is the shrinking gap between men and women who take the GMAT. Of the 247,432 GMAT exams taken worldwide in the testing year 2015 (ending June 30, 2014), women accounted for 109,892, or 44.4% of the total. That is the highest female-to-male ratio in GMAT history. In the ten years between 2006 and 2015, the number of women taking the test  has grown 38%, more than the triple the growth rate of men taking the exam, according to the white paper.

Most of the growth has occurred in east and southeast Asia where 62% of the GMAT exams taken in testing year 2015 were women. In every other region of the world, men still outnumber women when it comes to taking the test. In the United States, for example, women accounted for only 38% of test takers, while in Western Europe, the total was only 34%. The lowest percentage of women in any region was in central and south Asia where the GMAT was taken by only 29% of women.

Still, business schools have become far more aggressive in recent years about recruiting women and now at least nine highly prominent U.S. schools are at 40% or above in MBA female enrollment, including the business schools at Harvard, Stanford, Wharton, Northwestern, Chicago, MIT, and UC-Berkeley. “When you have a deeper applicant pool, it’s easier to reach a 40% mark,” says Chisholm. “Inititally it looked like the four-minute mile that couldn’t be broken, but increasingly that is happening. While only a few MBA programs are at that 40% or higher mark today, the vast majority of schools say they are devoting more resources to getting women to apply and enroll.”

 

PARITY IS ANOTHER 10 TO 15 YEARS AWAY

How long will it take to reach parity in MBA enrollment? Chisholm says that is going to take quite a few years. “More flexible programs will attract a greater share of women right away. That’s especially true for specialized masters degrees which at many schools have become the flagship programs. But for the MBA degree, it could be another 10 to 15 years away. As the average age of getting married and having children increases, you are starting to give some breathing room to the MBA age of 27 and 28.”

The most shocking statistic in the report? According to Paula Bruggemann, research publications manager at GMAC and co-author of the report with Hilary Chan, it’s the fact that there are only 20 female CEOs in the S&P 500. “In an ideal world,” she says, “we would have 250 CEOs. That is very telling when you can cite the women them by name. I don’t know the names of the 480 male CEOs so that alone is a very telling statistic in terms of where we need to go in corporate leadership.”

One thing not unique to business when it comes to careers for women is the disparity in pay levels. Bruggeman says that the pay gap persists i”across most professions and not just MBAs. There is an earnings gap because of women who take time out to raise families but even women with no children are not advancing as fast as you would expect based on their educational credentials,” she says.

Indeed, the GMAC report shows that men earn more than women at all job levels (see table below).  At entry-level jobs, women’s pay is the closest it gets to parity at 85% of men’s earnings, but that gap widens as women advance higher up the corporate ladder.

MEN EARN MORE THAN WOMEN AT ALL JOB LEVELS

GMAC report on women earnings

CUMULATIVE BASE SALARY WIDENS TO ABOUT $400K 20 YEARS AFTER GRADUATION

The white paper found that gender pay gap and diversity gap in the workplace seen in GMAC’s alumni findings mirror larger societal and global trends. In selected OECD countries, the gender wage gap ranges from less than seven percent in New Zealand, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Greece to highs of 36 percent in Korea, 32 percent in Estonia, and 27 percent in Japan.19 Across the entire U.S. labor force, women earned an average of 78 percent of what men earned in 2013. Their earnings reach 82.5 percent of men’s salaries when looking at median weekly earnings for full-time workers.

Typically, earnings for both male and female full-time workers tend to increase with age, level off at age 45, and drop after age 65, according to the GMAC report.  The gender wage gap also grows with age—U.S. data show younger women are paid about 90 percent of what men earn until about age 35, at which point median earnings for women start to slow down as their careers progress, further widening the gender pay gap.2

Findings from the recent GMAC alumni survey bear out the widening of the earnings gap between men and women as they progress through their careers. In fact, the gap in their cumulative annual base salary widens to about $400,000 over 20 years after graduation (see chart below). This occurs even though male and female alumni overall recoup the investment in their degrees in an average of three-and-a-half years after graduation and have annual salary growth rates that exceed their expected salary gains had they not earned their degrees.

 

GENDER GAP IN ALUMNI EARNINGS WIDENS OVER 20 YEARS

GMAC gender pay gap

A SET OF RECOMMENDATIONS TO INSURE GREATER PROGRESS

Researcher Bruggemann points out that business schools constitute one of the main talent pipelines for future business leaders. Closing the gender gap in MBA enrollments particularly, would go a long way to expanding the pipeline of women prepared to step into leadership roles in business.

“Neither an MBA, nor graduate management education itself, is a prerequisite for access to the upper reaches of corporate governance,” according to the report. “But qualifications matter in an increasingly competitive global economy, and an MBA degree is a highly valued credential—the “gold standard”— for organizations seeking to hire top business talent to fill their ranks. More than 40 percent of CEOs of both genders in the top 100 companies have MBAs according to the Forte Foundation. So it would seem that, for women especially, an MBA is a natural pathway to the ranks of corporate leadership.”

The authors of the report believe that targeting gender diversity in the classroom will go a long way to improving the gender dynamics in business and facilitating diverse leadership models. “Business schools recognize that they play a critical role in ensuring their students are trained for the future business environments in which they will lead,” the report states. “To that end, deans from 47 U.S. business schools signed on to a set of 25 best practices for schools to lead in expanding opportunities for women in business. This event was an outcome of a prior meeting with senior U.S. White House officials to discuss the challenges business schools face in preparing their students for the future workplace.”

Best practices guidelines, which have more than 50 schools as signatories, cluster around four main goals:

? Expand access to business school and business careers by pursuing outreach and engagement to build the pipeline of women interested in business careers;

? Build a business school environment that prepares students for tomorrow’s diverse workforce;

? Ensure career services extend beyond the needs of traditional students to include recent graduates and alumni as well; and

? Business schools themselves need to set an example of a workplace that supports diverse faculty and staff by investigating and addressing gender gaps in faculty hiring, promotion, and pay and ensuring diverse leadership positions within the school, including on advisory boards.

Specific academic goals that directly address the obstacles and gender barriers women face include:

? Modernizing the curriculum to educate students on how to lead an organization that best utilizes the diverse talents of employees, including those trying to balance work and family;

? Making case studies more representative of diverse leaders solving a wide range of problems;

? Facilitating mentoring and sponsorship opportunities for women;

? Ensuring that a diverse group of leaders and leadership styles are brought into the classroom;

? Partnering with companies to help women get back on the fast track from interrupted careers;

? Recognizing life-cycle challenges women face in trying to pursue an MBA, career, and family and consider flexible approaches to the timing of education to better meet their needs; and

? Targeting financial support to ensure business school is a viable investment for individuals with a low earnings

 

 

以上内容摘自:

http://poetsandquants.com/2016/03/31/400k-gender-pay-gap-biz-masters/ 

 

 

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