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2009年7月份,我给一个老朋友(Simon FT-MBA,2010春季班)为申请MBA而写的Essay提了几点比较关键的修改建议。后来,她成功拿到Simon的Offer。再后来,她建议我做留学DIY咨询方面的工作,并向我介绍了我的第一个客户。最终,我的第一个客户也成功拿到几个TOP16商学院的面试并顺利拿到Duke Fuqua商学院MBA的录取。 本人毕业于上海复旦大学管理学院国际企业管理系,属于商科科班出身并且做过管理工作、有领导经验的人士。

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苹果高层:我从乔布斯身上学到的12节课 What I learned from Steve Jobs  

2012-01-19 01:28:47|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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苹果高层:我从乔布斯身上学到的12节课

What I learned from Steve Jobs

 
2011年12月28日 17:43   中国企业家网

  前苹果首席步道师Guy Kawasaki和乔布斯共事多年,他分享了从乔布斯身上学到的12节课。

  一、专家其实是“砖”家。

  各种专家(记者、分析师、顾问、银行家等)都不“做”事,所以他们“提建议”。他们能告诉你产品问题出在哪里,但他们做不出更好的产品。他们能告诉你如何销售产品,但他们自己却卖不出去。他们能告诉你如何打造牛逼的团队,但他们只管理自己的秘书。比如专家曾在80年代告诉我们Mac有两大缺点,不支持菊轮式打印机驱动和Lotus 1-2-3;还有专家建议苹果收购康柏。专家的话是要听,但别唯专家马首是瞻。

  二、顾客不知道自己想要什么。

  苹果市场调研是个悖论。苹果的核心小组就是乔布斯的左脑和右脑。如果你问顾客想要什么,他们会告诉你,“更好、更快、更便宜”,也就是说在原来基础上改进,而不是颠覆式变革。他们只能根据正在使用的东西描述自己的愿望。Macintosh推出时,所有人都说想要更好、更快、更便宜的微软DOS机。科技创业公司最大的优势就是开发你想要的产品,苹果两位创始人正是这么做的。

  三、把握下一个趋势。

  如果你不落窠臼,你就能取得巨大的成功。当最牛的菊轮打印机公司不断引入各种型号的新字体时,苹果另辟蹊径,引入了激光打印。不妨想想片冰机、冰工厂、冰箱制造商的例子,你可以把它们看成冰 1.0,2.0,3.0。你还会在冬天结冰的池塘里采集冰块吗?

  四、最大的挑战能带来最杰出的工作。

  我曾担心乔布斯把我或者我的工作称为垃圾。尤其是在公开场合。这是一种巨大的挑战。和IBM、微软竞争是一种巨大的挑战。改变世界是一个巨大的挑战。我和苹果的员工都全力以赴,因为我们只有这样才能迎接巨大的挑战。

  五、设计很重要。

  乔布斯的设计需求让人们抓狂,比如有些黑色的阴影还不够黑。只有普通人认为黑就是黑,垃圾桶就是一个垃圾桶。乔布斯是一个完美主义者,一个近乎疯狂的完美主义者,但他是对的:有人在乎设计,至少很多人能感觉到设计的存在。或许不是谁都能感觉到,只有重要的人才能感觉到设计的重要性。

  六、大张图片、大号字体总不会错。

  看看乔布斯的幻灯片。字体都是60号。通常或有一张大的截图或图表。你再看看其他科技演讲者的幻灯片,即便是见过乔布斯的人。他们的幻灯片都是8号字体,而且没有图表。所以很多人说乔布斯是全世界最伟大的产品介绍人,但模仿他的人并不多,你不觉得奇怪吗?

  七、改变思路是聪明的表现。

  当苹果推出iPhone时并没有所谓的应用程序。乔布斯一开始觉得这东西不靠谱,因为你不知道它们能在手机上做什么。他认为Safari网络应用才是正道,直到6个月之后,乔布斯,或者有人说服乔布斯,认为手机上的应用才是正道。从Safari网络应用到iPhone应用,苹果在很短的时间内实现了很大的跨越。

  八、“价值”和“价格”是两码事。

  如果你的决策都是根据价格做出的,你会倒霉。如果你单纯依赖价格,你更倒霉。价格根本没那么重要,重要的是价值。价值包括训练、支持,以及通过使用最靠谱的工具获得的发自内心的快感。可以说没几个人是因为苹果的东西便宜才买苹果产品的。

  九、牛逼的人应该聘请更牛逼的人。

  实际上乔布斯认为牛逼的应该聘请牛逼的人,也就是说跟自己旗鼓相当的人。我微调了一下,我觉得一流的人应该雇佣超一流的人。固然二流的人雇佣三流的人,三流的人雇佣四流的人,会让前者有优越感。但如果你开始接受二流员工,那么你的公司就会遇到乔布斯所说的“笨蛋肆虐”的情况。

  十、真正的CEO善于演示产品。

  乔布斯每年都有两三次机会在数百万观众面前演示平板、手机、Mac等产品,为什么很多CEO会让工程副总做产品演示呢?或许是为了证明凸显团队工作。或许吧。但更有可能是这些CEO对公司产品的了解不够深入,无法解释吧。多可怜啊。

  十一、真正的CEO能做出产品。

  乔布斯是一个完美主义者,但他能做出产品来。或许产品无法保证每次都完美无缺,但一直都还拿得出手。乔布斯高就高在他不是为了折腾而折腾,他心里有谱:瞄准并占领全球现有市场,或创造新的市场。苹果是一个以工程为中心的公司,而不是一家研究型公司。你喜欢哪家:苹果还是Xerox PARC?

  十二、说到底营销在于提供独特价值。

  假设有一个二维矩阵、纵轴代表你的产品和竞争对手的与众不同之处。横轴代表产品价值。下右:有价值但并不独特,你需要在价格上一较高低。右上:独特但没有价值,你将拥有一个并不存在的市场。下左:没有独特性,没有价值,你是个大笨蛋。上右:独特而有价值,你将获得收入、利润,创造历史。比如iPod就是一个右上角的产品,因为如果你想从6家最大的唱片公司合法、方便地下载便宜的歌曲的话,iPod是唯一的渠道。

  额外奖励:有些东西只有相信你才能看到。当你另辟蹊径、无视砖家、像真的猛士一样敢于直面淋漓的鲜血、迷恋设计、专注于独特的价值时,你就可以说服人们相信你,进而让你的努力开花结果。人们只有相信Macintosh才能看到它变成现实。iPod、iPhone、iPad莫不如此。并非每个人都信,但没关系。但是改变世界总是从改变少数人开始的,这是我从乔布斯身上学到的最重要的一课。

 

 

What I learned from Steve Jobs

 

guest column Many people have explained what one can learn from Steve Jobs. But few, if any, of these people have been inside the tent and experienced first hand what it was like to work with him. I don’t want any lessons to be lost or forgotten, so here is my list of the top 12 lessons I learned from Steve Jobs.

 

1. Experts are clueless
Experts—journalists, analysts, consultants, bankers, and gurus can’t “do” so they “advise.” They can tell you what is wrong with your product, but they cannot make a great one. They can tell you how to sell something, but they cannot sell it themselves. They can tell you how to create great teams, but they only manage a secretary. For example, the experts told us that the two biggest shortcomings of Macintosh in the mid 1980s were the lack of a daisy-wheel printer driver and Lotus 1-2-3; another advice gem from the experts was to buy Compaq. Hear what experts say, but don’t always listen to them.

 

2. Customers cannot tell you what they need
“Apple market research” is an oxymoron. The Apple focus group was the right hemisphere of Steve’s brain talking to the left one. If you ask customers what they want, they will tell you, “Better, faster, and cheaper”—that is, better sameness, not revolutionary change. They can describe their desires only in terms of what they are already using—around the time of the introduction of Macintosh, all that people said they wanted was a better, faster, and cheaper MS-DOS machine. The richest vein for tech startups is creating the product that you want to use—that’s what Steve and Woz did.

 

3. Jump to the next curve
Big wins happen when you go beyond better sameness. The best daisy-wheel printer companies were introducing new fonts in more sizes. Apple introduced the next curve: laser printing. Think of ice harvesters, ice factories, and refrigerator companies. Ice 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0. Are you still harvesting ice during the winter from a frozen pond?

 

4. The biggest challenges beget best work
I lived in fear that Steve would tell me that I, or my work, was crap. In public. This fear was a big challenge. Competing with IBM and then Microsoft was a big challenge. Changing the world was a big challenge. I, and Apple employees before me and after me, did our best work because we had to do our best work to meet the big challenges.

 

5. Design counts
Steve drove people nuts with his design demands—some shades of black weren’t black enough. Mere mortals think that black is black, and that a trash can is a trash can. Steve was a perfectionist, and he was right: some people care about design and many people at least sense it. Maybe not everyone, but the important ones.

The Apple iPhone, officially unveiled at the Macworld trade show on January 9, 2007, was arguably the single most anticipated gadget in the history of the high-tech and consumer electronics industries.

(Credit: Declan McCullagh/CNET)

 

6. You can’t go wrong with big graphics and big fonts
Take a look at Steve’s slides. The font is 60 points. There’s usually one big screenshot or graphic. Look at other tech speaker’s slides—even the ones who have seen Steve in action. The font is 8 points, and there are no graphics. So many people say that Steve was the world’s greatest product introduction guy. Don’t you wonder why more people don’t copy his style?

 

7. Changing your mind is a sign of intelligence
When Apple first shipped the
iPhone there was no such thing as apps. Apps, Steve decreed, were a bad thing because you never know what they could be doing to your phone. Safari Web apps were the way to go until six months later when Steve decided, or someone convinced him, that apps were the way to go—but of course. Duh! Apple came a long way in a short time from Safari Web apps to “there’s an app for that.”

 

8. “Value” is different from “price”
Woe unto you if you decide everything based on price. Even more woe unto you if you compete solely on price. Price is not all that matters—what is important, at least to some people, is value. And value takes into account training, support, and the intrinsic joy of using the best tool that’s made. It’s pretty safe to say that no one buys Apple products because of their low price.

 

9. A players hire A+ players
Actually, Steve believed that A players hire A players—that is people who are as good as they are. I refined this slightly—my theory is that A players hire people even better than themselves. It’s clear, though, that B players hire C players so they can feel superior to them, and C players hire D players. If you start hiring B players, expect what Steve called “the bozo explosion” to happen in your organization.

 

10. Real CEOs demo
Steve Jobs could demo a 'Pod, 'Pad, 'Phone, and
Mac two to three times a year with millions of people watching, why is it that many CEOs call on their vice president of engineering to do a product demo? Maybe it’s to show that there’s a team effort in play. Maybe. It’s more likely that the CEO doesn’t understand what his/her company is making well enough to explain it. How pathetic is that?

 

11. Real CEOs ship
For all his perfectionism, Steve could ship. Maybe the product wasn’t perfect every time, but it was almost always great enough to go. The lesson is that Steve wasn’t tinkering for the sake of tinkering—he had a goal: shipping and achieving worldwide domination of existing markets or creation of new markets. Apple is an engineering-centric company, not a research-centric one. Which would you rather be: Apple or Xerox PARC?

Unique + Valuable = Has a market

 

12. Marketing boils down to providing unique value
Think of a two-by-two matrix. The vertical axis measures how your product differs from the competition. The horizontal axis measures the value of your product. Bottom right: valuable but not unique—you’ll have to compete on price. Top left: unique but not valuable—you’ll own a market that doesn’t exist. Bottom left: not unique and not valuable—you’re a bozo. Top right: unique and valuable—this is where you make margin, money, and history. For example, the iPod was unique and valuable because it was the only way to legally, inexpensively, and easily download music from the six biggest record labels.

 

Bonus: Some things need to be believed to be seen. When you are jumping curves, defying/ignoring the experts, facing off against big challenges, obsessing about design, and focusing on unique value, you will need to convince people to believe in what you are doing in order to see your efforts come to fruition. People needed to believe in Macintosh to see it become real. Ditto for the iPod, the iPhone, and the iPad. Not everyone will believe—that’s OK. But the starting point of changing the world is changing a few minds. This is the greatest lesson of all that I learned from Steve. May he rest in peace knowing how much he changed the world.

 

Guy Kawasaki

Guy Kawasaki is the author of "Enchantment: The Art of Changing Hearts, Minds, and Actions." He is also the co-founder of Alltop.com, an “online magazine rack” of popular topics on the Web, and a founding partner at Garage Technology Ventures. Previously, he was the chief evangelist of Apple.

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